5. Dates


6000Persian GulfPalaeolithic man is driven out of this originally fertile area by advancing heat, as in Adam’s Biblical expulsion from the Garden of Eden.
6000GreeceEarly evidence of trading.
5000CreteThe Minoan civilisation begins.
4000BabylonProcessional street is created in the city.
4000EuropeEarly glazed pottery appears.
3200IrelandPassage grave is constructed at Newgrange.
3000CreteCopper, silver and gold in use (Early Minoan period).
3000EnglandFirst wooden building is erected at Stonehenge, complete with encircling ditch and bank.
2815EgyptThe first pyramid, Zoser’s Step Pyramid, is constructed.
2800MesopotamiaThe harp is being played.
2700GazaThe Great Pyramid is built.
2500EgyptSailing boats are in use.
2500BritainGrimes Graves excavations are created in the process of flint mining.
2400IndiaThe Indus civilisation begins.
2300EgyptNile river is linked to Lake Moeris by canal. The lake is used as water store and may have been known by Joseph during the famine of 1730 BC.
2170BabylonRiver Euphrates is diverted to allow building of a ‘cut and cover’ tunnel, over a mile long, which is to be used by the Queen. The river is eventually returned to its original course.
2200EnglandAubrey holes are created inside the mound of Stonehenge.
2000PhoeniciaTrading begins.
2000CreteMiddle Minoan civilisation appears at Knossos.
2000EnglandCircles of blue stones are erected at Stonehenge.
2000BritainLimestone is burnt to provide quicklime.
1800IndiaThe Indus civilisation ends.
1800EnglandSarsen stones are added to Stonehenge, which are also ‘mauled’ and polished.
1750KarnakWork begins on the Temple of Amon.
1730EgyptFamine arrives with the Biblical times of Joseph
1650ChinaThe first dynasty is established.
1600CreteLate Minoan civilisation reaches its zenith at Knossos.
1500AegeanVolcanic eruption destroys much of island of Santorini, ancient Thera, and damages the Minoan civilisation.
1500EuropeFirst glass vessels.
1480AsiaAnubis shrine is built at Deir al Bahara, containing prototype Doric order.
1450CreteMinoan civilisation ends.
1400KarnakTemple of Amon Ra built using stone post and lintel construction.
1400AegeanMycenean Greek rule begins.
1300MycenaeTreasury of Atreus is built with ornamental stonework, including ‘Egyptian’ water lily capitals.
1300EgyptFirst Suez canal is constructed.
1200Middle EastThe Iron Age begins.
1200AegeanMycenean Greek rule ends.
1100EuropeThe Bronze Age culture collapses.
1085KarnakTemple of Amon is completed.
1000EyukThe bagpipes are played by Hittites
800GreeceHellenic civilisation begins, with Ionians on west coast of Turkey and Dorians from the north.
776OlympiaOlympic Games begin and are staged every four years.
753RomeThe city is founded (traditional date).
703AssyriaKing Sennacherib builds a 30 mile irrigation canal into city of Ninevah, including the 863 foot long and 28 foot high Jerwan aqueduct, which is lined with concrete.
700LydiaMoney is issued in the form of coins.
690JerusalemKing Hezekiah builds 1,750 foot tunnel into pool of Siloam in the city, fed from the Gihon spring.
687SamosGreeks construct water conduits in the form of tunnels.
630ThermonTemple of Apollo is built with a tiled roof and a Doric Order: it faces east with the sacrificial altar in front, the priest standing with his back to building whilst the public are kept outside.
600ItalyThe Greeks begin to build their Doric temples at Paestum.
600GermanyHallstatt culture appears.
580SamosPythagoras is born: he later used square and cubic numbers, helped Buddha found his religion, and may have created multiplication tables.
551ChinaConfucius is born.
550BritainHill forts begin to appear.
550EphesusThe Temple of Diana is built in Ionic style.
530ItalyPythagoras discovers that octaves (do-do) and fifths (doh-sah) are produced by stopping a string at half and two-thirds length respectively, hence ‘harmonic mean’ and ‘harmonic progression’.
529ItalyPythagoras establishes his school at Crotona.
513DelphiTemple of Apollo is built, complete with marble facing.
509RomeThe Etruscans are expelled.
500EuropeLa Téne culture appears.
500GreeceClassical architecture arrives, which is based on ‘three stones’ (trilithon) of Stonehenge, using columns formed of ‘drums’ joined with bronze dowels set in molten lead, without using mortar.
480ItalyThe Doric temples at Paestum are complete.
480AthensAn eighty year building programme starts at the Acropolis with the Parthenon, Propylaea and Erechtheon. The Parthenon has a convex stylobate and entablature, with entasis in the columns, which lean inward with axes meeting 112 miles above.
466MiletusThe city is built on a rectangular grid.
460GreeceDemocritus is born: he later develops the theory of the ‘a - tom’, meaning ‘not divisible’.
429BassaeWork starts on Temple of Apollo, with early Corinthian capitals: it’s completed in 400 BC.
406GreeceAthens is defeated in the Peloponnesian War.
400AsiaAlexander the Great begins construction of the Babylonia, Thessaly and Crimea canals.
384GreeceAristotle is born: he becomes pupil of Plato, proposing ‘elements’ of Earth, Air, Fire and Water.
347GreecePlato is dead.
342GreeceAristotle tutors Alexander the Great.
335GreeceAristotle establishes his own school known as the Lyceum.
334PersiaAlexander the Great conquers Persia.
323BabylonAlexander the Great is dead.
322GreeceAristotle dies.
312RomeThe Via Appia, the first Roman trunk road, is constructed.
312RomeThe Aqua Appia, the earliest known Roman aqueduct, is built.
306GreeceThe Hellenistic kingdoms are established.
287SyracuseArchimedes is born: he later discovers the archimedean screw, which is then used for irrigation.
246ChinaThe 200-mile Chengkuo canal is opened.
221ChinaThe country is unified and the first Emperor installed.
212SyracuseArchimedes is killed in a siege.
202Roman EmpireRome wins Second Punic War with Carthage.
200EuropeFortified towns, usually on hills and known as oppida, are created.
200Roman EmpireRoman classical architecture is established, using lime mortar and mass concrete.
200PrieneThe Council Chamber is constructed: it’s lit by a semicircular window in the form of an early arch.
200PergamumThe Altar of Pergamum, known as the ‘seat of Satan’ in Revelation 2:13, is created.
200Roman EmpireFirst Pompeiian Style appears, using painted architectural motifs and marble veneers.
170MiletusThe Bouleuterion is built, containing engaged orders and numerous windows.
170AlexandriaCtesibius invents the pneumatic wind gun.
168MacedoniaThe Romans conquer Macedonia.
151CarthageThe Romans conquer Carthage.
148GreeceThe Romans conquer Greece.
146CorinthCorinth is sacked by the Romans.
145RomeThe Aqua Marcia, the longest Roman aqueduct is built. It’s 50 miles long, with another 57 miles underground, arriving in the city on top of an arcade. On completion of all Rome’s aqueducts there were two arcades, one carrying three aqueducts, the other two. Water was used continuously, otherwise it was used for for cleaning the streets.
133PergamumThe Romans conquer Pergamum.
105Roman EmpireThe Romans discover ‘hydraulic cement’ that sets under water.
100EnglandLindow Man dies, apparently as druidic human sacrifice.
100Pergamum35-mile water supply completed using 7-inch clay pipes, with two inverted siphons across valleys.
99TurkeyWater mill is in operation using an undershot wheel.
90Roman EmpireFirst Pompeiian Style ends.
80Roman EmpireSecond Pompeiian Style appears, with columns and painted illusions of colonnades.
64SyriaThe Romans conquer Syria.
42PhilippiBrutus and Cassius are killed by Augustus in the Battle of Philippi.
31Roman EmpireAnthony and Cleopatra are defeated by Augustus.
30EgyptThe Romans conquer Egypt.
30BritainRomans build the Carr Dyke navigation from corn lands of Cambridgeshire to Lincoln.
15Roman EmpireSecond Pompeiian Style ends.


4BethlehemChrist is born.
6RomeTemple of Castor and Pollux is built using standardised Corinthian columns.
30JerusalemChrist is crucified.
40RomeRomans build 312-mile overflow tunnel through mountain from Lake Celane to the river.
43EnglandRoman troops invade and occupy the country.
43England‘Roof’ houses, constructed of tree branches and turf, are in common use.
60EnglandBoudicca revolts against the Romans.
63RomeSaint Paul is dead.
64RomeRome burns.
66IsraelJews rebel against Rome.
68RomeGolden House is built for Nero, containing an octagonal room of brick-faced concrete lit by an oculus in the domed ceiling, with surrounding rectangular rooms having top lights. This building is the origin of the ‘grotto’ and ‘grotesque’ in Renaissance architecture.
68RomeNero is dead.
70JerusalemRomans destroy the Temple and the Jews are dispersed.
79ItalyVesuvius erupts, destroying Pompeii and Herculaneum.
79RomeForum of Vespasian is built, celebrating the Roman capture of Jerusalem. It contains the Ark of the Covenant and the Seven-branched Candlestick.
99TivoliTemple of Vesta is complete.
80RomeColosseum is constructed, using round arches, three orders, and brick-faced cast concrete sub-structure.
81RomeArch of Titus is built, the first to have Composite capitals.
86AthensThe city is sacked by the Romans.
98EgyptTrajan reopens the Egyptian canal linking the Mediterranean Sea near Port Said to Lake Timsah, the Bitter Lakes and the Red Sea.
99FranceThe Pont du Gard, a 25-mile aqueduct built to convey water into Nîmes is complete. It crosses the river Gardon on a single arch that’s 49 metres high.
99RomeTranslation of the New Testament from ‘simple Greek’ to Latin is complete.
100Roman EmpireThe term ‘New Testament’ is in use and many apocryphal books begin to appear.
105ChinaPaper is manufactured.
127EnglandHadrian’s Wall is built of concrete faced with stone.
128RomeThe Pantheon is built, with a 142 foot dome, equal in height and width, with an oculus at the top and 20 foot thick walls.
134TivoliHadrian’s villa is complete.
199SpainThe Segovia aqueduct, consisting of 128 arches, 30 metres high, is complete. It’s still used for town water supply today (1986).
212Roman EmpireEdict of Caracalla gives Roman citizenship to all free people of Europe.
300Roman EmpireThe Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament, is complete.
306YugoslaviaDiocletian’s Palace is built at Split: an early instance of where arches spring from capitals and the architrave is bent to form an arch.
313Roman EmpireConstantine’s Edict of Toleration is declared, in which Christianity is legalised.
313RomeThe Lateran Basilica is built of brick-faced concrete.
316RomeConstantine becomes Emperor: the ‘divine viceroy’.
320EgyptPachom’s monastic community is established and the monastic habit is worn.
324Roman EmpireConstantine reunifies the Empire.
325Roman EmpireFirst Ecumenical Council upholds the doctrine of Arios, in which the Son is said to be un-created but subordinate to the Father, and adopts the Creed.
330ByzantiumAlso known as Constantinople or Istanbul, this city is made the new capital of the Empire.
333RomeThe Shrine of the Martyred Apostle is created at St Peter’s.
340RomeThe Church of Saint Costanza is built, containing a domed space and a circular passage, indicating the first signs of the new Byzantine style.
387Egypt5,000 monks are established at the Pavou community.
392RomeEmperor Theodosius overthrows the pagans.
394OlympiaThe last Olympic Games takes place.
402RavennaThis city becomes the new capital of the Western Empire.
407Roman EmpireThe Empire withdraws to Italy.
432IrelandSaint Patrick begins his mission.
439AfricaCarthage falls to the Vandals.
450Roman EmpireThe Empire is rapidly declining.
455RomeThe city falls to Vandals coming from Africa and the south.
456ItalyThe country is conquered by Ostrogothics from the north.
460RomeThe Virgin Mary is elevated by the Church.
500EnglandCruck timber frame houses appear and continue to be constructed until 1600.
500Roman EmpireThe use of church icons increases.
525RomeDionysios invents the ‘AD’ system of dating, but it isn’t adopted by the Greeks.
526Byzantine EmpireTheodoric dies.
527Byzantine EmpireJustinian rules the Eastern Empire and retakes Italy. Byzantine or Early Christian architecture appears.
529AthensJustinian closes the pagan ‘neo-Platonic’ Academy of Athens and the city is in decline.
529Byzantine EmpireJustinian issues the codex of Roman law.
530ItalySt Benedict, the educated monk, establishes his monastery at Monte Cassino.
537ConstantinopleChurch of Hagia Sophia is built, including a 180 foot dome over a square space, supported on pendentives rising from piers. The semi-domes are the same size as the main dome.
540sByzantine EmpireBubonic plague from the Far East cuts the Empire’s population by a third.
546RomeThe city, besieged by Totila and left empty, is abandoned by the Eastern Empire, with Ravenna effectively becoming the capital.
548RavennaChurch of Saint Vitale is built in octagonal form.
553Byzantine EmpireThe Fifth Ecumenical Council and Justinian worsens divisions between the Eastern and Western parts of the Empire.
554Byzantine EmpireThe Empire retakes control of Africa, Sicily, Italy and Spain.
563Byzantine EmpireSt Columba launches his mission to the Picts.
565ConstantinopleJustinian dies and the cult of the Virgin Mary develops.
569MilanLombards capture the city.
572Byzantine EmpireExarchates, which provide military control, begin to appear in Africa and northern Italy.
590RomeGregory becomes Pope.
591Byzantine EmpirePeace is established between the Empire and Persia.
597KentSt Augustine lands at Thanet.
600BritainSaxons are using stone bedded in mortar for building.
600PersiaWindmills are built with rotating vanes on a vertical post.
602ConstantinopleA coup by the half-barbarian Phokus results in him becoming the new Emperor.
605ChinaGrand Canal of China is built.
607RomePapal primacy confirmed: the Pantheon later becomes a church.
610Byzantine EmpireThe Empire evolves from Roman to medieval, with civil government replaced by the military.
610Byzantine EmpireEmperor Phokus is overthrown.
617Byzantine EmpireAncient cities in Europe and elsewhere begin to turn into medieval fortified towns.
618ChinaThe T’ang Dynasty begins and remains an influence for the next 1,300 years.
626ConstantinopleIcons are venerated and used as a ‘defence’ during siege of the city.
627Byzantine EmpireThe Empire defeats Persia.
638JerusalemArabs capture the city.
642AlexanderArabs take the city.
649CyprusArabs take the island.
649RomePope Martin appointed without the Emperor’s authority whilst Synod denounces the ‘one will’ theology as heresy
664WhitbyThe Synod of Whitby establishes that Roman ritual supersedes that of the Celts.
678ConstantinopleArab attacks cease.
680Byzantine EmpireThe Sixth Ecumenical Council, in which the Eastern doctrine of ‘one will’ is rejected by both East and West.
692JerusalemDome of the Rock is complete and used as an Islamic temple.
698CarthageArabs take the city.
700EnglandAnglo-Saxons are established.
711SpainArabs attacks, with expansion of Islam at its zenith.
717ConstantinopleThe city is under siege by the Arabs.
721Byzantine EmpireArabs issue orders to destroy Christian art.
726AegeanA volcanic eruption and tidal wave occurs, which seems to encourage the iconoclasts.
730Asia MinorFinal emergence of iconoclasts.
731EnglandBede encourages use of the ‘AD’ dating system.
731RomeIconoclasm is condemned.
733Poitiers.Franks halt the Arab advance.
740sConstantinopleThe city is devastated by bubonic plague.
740ConstantinopleThe Arab attacks end.
744Roman EmpireFrankish leader Charlemagne conquers the Western Empire.
750AsiaThe Arabs are divided by the Abbasid revolt.
750BritainLindisfarne manuscript is created.
751RavennaThe city falls to the Lombards.
754Roman EmpireThe Council of Hiereia establishes the iconoclasts.
760sBaghdadThis city replaces Damascus as the Arab capital.
767Byzantine EmpireEmpire of the East apparently abandons the West.
768RomeGaul Pepin III replaces Gallican liturgy by the Roman version.
769Roman EmpireRoman and Frankish bishops support an iconophile doctrine at the Lateran Synod.
787Roman EmpireSeventh Ecumenical Council, and the Eastern and Western churches become iconophile.
789Roman EmpireCharlemagne imposes the Benedictine rule on all monks.
793BritainViking attacks begin.
794Roman EmpireThe Synod of Frankfurt separates the Eastern (Greek Orthodox) and Western (Latin Catholic) churches, while Frankish bishops denounce iconophile Rome
800AachenThe Palatine chapel for Charlemagne is complete and built in a bold Romanesque style.
800RomeCharlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, thereby beginning the Carolingian dynasty.
814RomeCharlemagne is dead and the Empire divided.
815Eastern EmpireAn iconoclast revival occurs.
842Eastern EmpireIconoclasm comes to an end.
843EuropeThe Empire finally divides, with France and Germany forming into individual states.
850IrelandThe Book of Kells is created.
868ChinaFirst dated book is printed.
900IrelandDefensive round towers appear.
950EuropeEmphasis on architectural decoration begins.
962RomeOtto I is crowned as the 1st Saxon Emperor and the Ottonian Empire is established in Germany and northern Italy.
981ClunyThe first Abbey Church is built, complete with twin bell towers at the west end.
988SpainGreat Mosque at Cordoba is complete, containing domes of eight arches, also known as squinches.
1000Bradford-on-AvonThe Church of St Lawrence is built.
1020GreeceThe Holy Luke Katholikon is built at Styris, complete with cloisonné facing.
1037FranceNormans are using thick or double-shell walls.
1056EuropeThe Ottonian Empire ends.
1063PisaWork on the Cathedral, featuring arcades, begins.
1063VeniceSt Mark’s Church is started, in the form of a Byzantine quincunx, with five domes.
1080sEuropeEarly use of the groin vault.
1080GreeceChurch of Dormition at Daphni is complete and incorporates Byzantine mosaics.
1093DurhamWork on the Cathedral begins: it has rib vaults, with chevron and zigzag ornament.
1097LondonTower of London’ s White Tower is built with 12 foot thick walls.
1098EuropeCistercian order is founded with emphasis on austerity.
1099JerusalemFirst Crusade takes the city.
1100sBritainSculpture is used as ornament.
1100BritainJettied timber frame houses are constructed and continue to be built until 1500.
1100ClunyThe second Abbey Church is built.
1100EnglandThere are 99 English castles, which have allegiance to the town, not the country.
1100EuropeWindmills are in common use.
1100ItalyThe merchant cities of Verona, Florence, Venice, Pisa and Genoa begin to ascend.
1130ClunyThird Abbey Church is built: it’s large, of Gothic proportions and has pointed arches.
1134ChatresConstruction of the Cathedral begins.
1140ParisSt-Denis Abbey Church is built in a vertical and skeletal Gothic style with a rose window and twin towers.
1174CanterburyWork begins on the Gothic Cathedral.
1176LondonConstruction of a stone version of London Bridge begins.
1190River LeaFirst improvements are made to the river navigation.
1192LincolnCathedral rebuilding begins, producing an influential design containing tierceron ribs.
1200BritainEarly English Gothic begins: this style uses pointed arches, lancet windows and undercut mouldings, as well as flying buttresses with pinnacles used as counterweights.
1200EuropeThe wood plane, as used by the Romans, is rediscovered.
1204ConstantinopleVenetians lead Crusaders in sack of the city.
1212LondonThatch is prohibited for roofing.
1221Waltham AbbeyWater is conveyed by means of elm trunks, which are used as pipes and placed beneath the River Lea.
1234BrugesTo the north, a prototype ‘pound lock’ is created on the waterway.
1235ReimsBuilding of the Cathedral begins: it has bar tracery and two-light windows that are topped by an oculus.
1245LondonConstruction of Westminster Abbey begins, incorporating French features.
1256BalticConference of Baltic ports takes place, later becoming the Hanseatic League.
1258MilanThe 30-mile Naviglio Grande canal is opened.
1261Byzantine EmpireThe Paleologue Dynasty begins.
1265PisaBaptistry with arcading is built.
1271PisaThe Leaning Tower is complete: it has six storeys of marble arcades.
1290BritainDecorated Gothic reaches its maturity: there are more outlines, larger clerestorey windows, tracery and ogee curves.
1300BritainDrill braces with four bends are used.
1315SalonicaChurch of the Holy Apostles is built, complete with coloured patterning in the facade.
1330BritainPerpendicular Gothic appears, providing vast windows between piers and surfaces uninterrupted from floor to ceiling.
1338BritainHundred Years War with France begins.
1348EuropeThe Black Death arrives.
1349ElyCathedral is built with small chapel containing fan vaulting.
1357GloucesterCathedral cloisters are complete, incorporating vaulting with a 3.65 metre span.
1381EnglandWat Tyler launches his Peasants’ Revolt.
1390sLondonWestminster Hall is built and features a hammer beam roof.
1391SpainThe Alhambra fortified palace is constructed at Granada
1392ElyThe Octagon is created in the Cathedral roof.
1400BritainPerpendicular Gothic spreads.
1400GermanyThe Hanseatic League on the northern coast reaches the peak of its commercial power.
1421FlorenceNew Classical buildings appear.
1424EnglandAct of Parliament passed to improve the River Lea navigation.
1436FlorenceBrunelleshi completes his dome for the Cathedral: this uses a pointed profile to reduce thrust and incorporates two layers of herringbone bricks and masonry, which are reinforced with iron chains, as well as rings of stone.
1440OxfordQueen’s College is built.
1450RiminiLeon Battista Alberti uses Roman triumphal arch on a Christian church.
1453ConstantinoplePaleologue Dynasty of the Byzantine Empire ends and the Turks enter the city.
1454MainzA Papal indulgence is printed using movable type.
1469SpainThe country is unified under Ferdinand and Isabella.
1472Eastern EmpireSophia, niece of the last emperor, marries Moscow’s Ivan the Great, eventually becoming grandmother of Ivan the Terrible.
1476WestminsterCaxton sets up his printing press.
1492AmericaThe New World is discovered.
1492SpainThe Moors are expelled by Ferdinand and Isabella.
1495WorldVasco da Gama opens the sea route to India.
1497MilanCanal ‘pound locks’ are designed by Leonardo da Vinci.
1500sAtlanticNumbered ‘ballast’ stones are sent from Portugal for the construction of buildings in Brazil.
1500BritainThe ‘box frame’ form of house construction appears, continues until around 1800 and then returns in the 1980s.
1500BritainThe sheep population exceeds humans by a ratio of 3:1.
1500BritainCast iron and spinning wheels are now commonplace.
1500EuropeFlying and smoothing wood planes are in use.
1500EuropeGreat banking houses are now established, including Fuggers of Augsberg, the Medici, the Bardi and the Peruzzi.
1500FranceClassical style buildings appear.
1515CambridgeKing’s College Chapel is complete.
1517EuropeThe Reformation begins.
1519Roman EmpireCharles I of Spain is on the throne.
1527RomeCity sacked by mercenaries of Emperor Charles V.
1536BritainHenry VIII dissolves smaller monasteries.
1540EuropeJesuit order is formed by St Ignatius of Loyola.
1540FranceChateaux of Fountainbleau is built.
1542RomeThe Inquisition is reintroduced.
1545EnglandCouncil of Trent begins issuing its decrees, continuing until 1563.
1546ParisThe Louvre Square Court is begun, marking the establishment of French Classicism.
1549BritainOrder issued to remove images from churches.
1552LondonOld Somerset House, the first fully classical building, is complete.
1560FranceWars of Religion begin.
1560MoscowSt Basil’s Cathedral is built.
1560Waltham AbbeyThe first pound lock on the River Lea is opened, on a now disused channel.
1563ExeterThe Ship canal is open.
1567FranceL’Orme‘ produces his first volume of architecture but dies before publishing his theory of Divine Proportion, which is based on the Go-given dimensions of Old Testament buildings.
1570ItalyPalladio publishes ‘The Four Books of Architecture’.
1570VicenzaVilla Rotunda is complete.
1577WorldDrake sails around the world.
1580sEnglandLittle Morton Hall is built.
1580sEnglandBurghley House, a prodigy house, is complete.
1580WiltshireLongleat House is constructed.
1590Plymouth12-mile water-feeder canal is built from Dartmoor’s River Meavey.
1596DerbyshireHardwick Hall is constructed.
1598FranceWars of Religion end.
1600sEnglandThe Classical style arrives.
1600WorldChartered companies of Britain and Holland begin world competition.
1602HollandThe Dutch East India Company is founded.
1610PisaGalileo finds that all weights dropped from the Tower of Pisa land at the same time and the swaying lamps in Pisa Cathedral lead him to discover the pendulum.
1612HertsHatfield House is built.
1613HertsThe New River is constructed, supplying London with spring water from Amwell and Chadwell, and also from the River Lea at a later date.
1616GreenwichWork begins on the Queen’s House by Inigo Jones.
1618GermanyThirty Years War begins.
1620EnglandThe structure of Stonehenge is surveyed by Inigo Jones.
1622LondonThe Banqueting House is built by Inigo Jones.
1624AmericaA wooden house is sent in kit form from England to America.
1633RomeSt Peter’s baldachino is built by Bernini.
1638LondonSt Paul’s church in Covent Garden is created by Inigo Jones.
1642EnglandIsaac Newton is born: he later discovered gravity from the falling apple, as well as working out calculus, the binomial theorem, laws of motion and the colours created by a refracting prism (Richard Of York Gained Battles In Vain).
1642EnglandCivil War breaks out.
1642FranceThe 34-mile Briare canal, which crosses watershed using 41 locks, is complete.
1648GermanyThe Thirty Years War ends.
1648EnglandSecond Civil War breaks out.
1660EnglandThe monarchy is restored.
1661ParisGardens by Le Nôtre are created at Vaux-le-Vicomte.
1662FranceWork begins on Versailles, with gardens by Le Nôtre.
1665LondonThe Great Plague hits the city.
1666BritainThe Plague comes to an end.
1666LondonThe Great Fire of London destroys much of the city.
1673HollandHuygens constructs the first pendulum clock.
1675Britain700 miles of navigable river are in use for conveying sea coal, timber, stone and grain.
1675LondonWren begins work on St Paul’s Cathedral.
1681FranceLanguedoc Canal is built, complete with three aqueducts.
1681FranceThe Canal du Midi is constructed, requiring 119 locks over 148 miles and a 500 ft tunnel, the latter excavated by means of gunpowder.
1683ViennaThe Relief of Vienna provides victory over the invading Turks.
1688EnglandThe ‘Glorious Revolution’ puts James I to flight.
1690HollandHuygens publishes his ‘Treaty on Light’, introducing the concept of the ‘ether’.
1694EnglandBank of England is established.
1695BritainEnglish Baroque period begins.
1699EnglandVanbrugh starts Castle Howard.
1699HungaryTurkish domination ends.
1700BritainWarehouses are created with thick walls and wooden beams.
1700BritainWrought iron rods and beams are used in industrial buildings.
1700BritainThe Industrial Revolution begins.
1707BritainAct of Parliament to prevent fire: no overhanging eaves are permitted, there must be 18-inch parapets above the roof and no timber can be within five inches of flues or less than four inches from the front face of an outside wall.
1707EnglandVanbrugh begins Blenheim Palace.
1709ShropshireAbraham Darby succeeds at iron smelting, bringing the Sussex iron industry to an end.
1710LondonSt Paul’s Cathedral is complete.
1713LondonNew developments proceed, such as Regent Street to Hyde Park, Hanover Square, George Street and Burlington House.
1713ShropshireCoalbrookdale iron smelting industry is established.
1714BritainUK population stands at around 512 million, with 500,000 in London and 50,000 in towns such as Bristol or Norwich.
1714EuropeCut glass is developed and used in chandeliers.
1715BritainColen Campbell publishes ‘Vitruvius Britannicus’.
1716BritainGiacomo Leone publishes ‘The Architecture of A Palladio’.
1716GreenwichThe Baroque ensemble of the Royal Hospital is completed by Wren.
1718BalkansTurkish domination comes to an end.
1720sLondonMore new developments completed, including Bond Street, Conduit Street, Brook Street, Grosvenor and the Cavendish-Harley Estates.
1720EnglandVanbrugh starts on Seaton Delaval.
1720FranceGrand Prix de Rome competition is inaugurated.
1725BritainThe ‘theatrical’ Blenheim Palace by Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor is complete.
1725BritainEnglish Baroque period ends.
1725LondonChiswick House is completed by Kent and Burlington.
1726BritainCastle Howard is built by Vanbrugh.
1732BritainJames Gibbs publishes ‘Rules for Drawing Several Parts of Architecture’.
1733BritainKay invents the flying shuttle.
1734NorfolkWork starts on Holkham Hall.
1740SheffieldSteel is produced using the ‘crucible process’ developed by Benjamin Huntsman.
1742AmericaBenjamin Franklin heats houses by passing air around a box containing a stove.
1742SwedenCelsius invents his ‘Centigrade’ scale of temperature.
1743ItalyThe first architectural book by Piranesi appears.
1750sLondonThe Portman Estate is built beyond Marylebone Lane.
1750BritainMid Georgian period begins, with Roman and Greek styles becoming popular at the same time as the Gothic Revival.
1751BritainThe Society of Antiquaries is established, reacting to the appeal of Arcadia.
1752AmericaBenjamin Franklin conducts his ‘lightning’ experiment.
1752BritainNew Style calendar is adopted.
1753BritainRobert Wood publishes ‘Ruins of Palmyra’.
1753BritainDoctor Russell advocates sea bathing for health.
1754BritainThe journey from London to Manchester takes four and a half days.
1755BritainThe first Canal Act, for the Weaver Navigation, is passed.
1757BritainRobert Wood publishes ‘Ruins of Balbec’.
1757EnglandSankey Canal, later known as the Saint Helen’s Canal, is opened.
1758LeedsMiddleton Colliery Wagonway is in use.
1759HertsFirst Act of Parliament passed for work on the Stort Navigation.
1760sBritainAdam brothers begin work on Lowther Village.
1762BritainNicholas Revert and James Stuart publish ‘Antiquities of Athens’.
1764BritainArkwright invents his spinning jenny.
1764BritainHargreave introduces his spinning jenny.
1764LondonThere are 23,000 deaths in this year, 35% of which are children under two years old.
1765BritainThe Bridgewater Canal opens.
1765BritainHMS Victory is launched, its construction requiring 2,000 oak trees.
1766BritainThe Grand Trunk Canal opens, providing a route from the River Trent to the Humber.
1766HertfordshireSmeaton surveys the River Lea for improvements to the navigation.
1766HertfordshireStort Navigation Second Act is passed.
1767HertfordshireEdmonton, Hackney and Enfield Cuts Act for works on River Lea is passed.
1769BritainArkwright introduces his water frame.
1769EtruriaJosiah Wedgewood opens the new works.
1769BritainWatt completes his improvements to the Newcomen steam engine.
1770sScarboroughSmollet sees bathing machines in use.
1770BritainLate Georgian period begins, with Etruscan style becoming popular.
1770BritainHargreave’s spinning jenny is patented.
1773BritainRobert and James Adam publish ‘Works in Architecture’.
1774BritainJoseph Priestley discovers oxygen and says ‘atoms must a little swerve’.
1774BritainBuildings Act defines six ‘Rates’ of housing and encourages the use of stucco.
1774LondonManchester Square is developed.
1775BirminghamWatt and Boulton work together at the Soho Engineering Works.
1776Britain‘The Wealth of Nations’ is published by Adam Smith
1776BritainPriestley publishes his report on electricity.
1776EdinburghNew Town plans are produced by Craig.
1779BritainCompton’s spinning mule is in use.
1780sBritainThe Industrial Revolution is in full swing.
1780BritainMid Georgian period ends.
1780BritainThomas Telford works as a stonemason.
1780FranceCointeraux builds a house using mass concrete.
1783LyonMarquis de Jouffray operates a 180-ton paddle-wheel steam boat on the River Saône.
1784BritainHenry Cort ‘puddles’ iron to create wrought iron.
1784BritainBrick Tax is introduced and ‘mathematical tiles’ are used to avoid it.
1784BritainMail coaches are in operation.
1784BritainWatt heats his workshop by steam.
1785BritainCartwright’s power loom appears.
1785BritainThe English Channel is crossed by balloon.
1788BritainThe journey from London to Manchester takes two and a half days.
1789FranceFrench Revolution breaks out.
1789WellingtonChurch is built with cast iron columns for gallery and roof.
1790sBritainThe canal boom ends, with most of the canal network completed.
1790sBritainFireproof factories are created using iron.
1790sBritainNew roads are built by Telford and ‘Blind Jack’ Knaresborough.
1790BritainCanal lock keeper’s houses are made from a kit of iron plates.
1790ParisTheatre is rebuilt using wrought iron trusses.
1791BritainHoyle patent is introduced for steam pipe heating.
1792EnglandFrancis Sandys completes Ickworth House, complete with its domed rotunda.
1792LondonFirst trade union is formed and is known as the London Corresponding Society.
1792RedruthWilliam Murdoch lights his house using gas.
1792ShrewsburySt Chad’s Church is constructed of cast iron columns in two tiers.
1794LondonNew housing appears at Brunswick Square, the north side Bloomsbury Square and at Burton Street and Burton Crescent.
1795PolandThe country is partitioned.
1796ChirkCanal aqueduct is built by Telford using bricks but with a bottom of iron plates.
1796ShrewsburyBage’s Mill is built using cast iron columns and beams.
1800BritainLate Georgian period ends.
1800BritainParliament passes the Act for the Union of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1800Longdon-on-TernAqueduct is made by Telford in the form of a cast iron trough.
1801ManchesterThe population of this city is only 72,275.
1801MiddlesbroughThis town consists of just 4 houses.
1802BritainThe First Factory Act is passed.
1803BritainThe Elgin Marbles arrive.
1803FranceAcadémie des Beaux-Arts is founded by Napoleon.
1804GlasgowHouldsworth Textile Mill is heated by steam in hollow iron columns.
1805FranceBonaparte becomes Emperor.
1805PontcysyllteCanal aqueduct by Telford is in the form of an iron trough on masonry piers.
1805TrafalgarNelson is killed at the point of victory against the French.
1806ManchesterParts of the city are lit by gas.
1807AmericaRobert Fulton’s steam passenger boat covers the 150 miles of Hudson river between New York and Albany in 32 hours.
1807LincolnshireBoston gets the first wrought iron bridge.
1807LondonSouth side of Pall Mall is lit by gas.
1809RomeGerman art students establish the Nazarene community, which is based on Gothic and medieval ideals, as were the later Pre-Raphaelites.
1811Blaise HamletNash builds his picturesque village.
1811EnglandTelford supervises completion of 312-mile Standedge tunnel on the Huddersfield Narrow Canal.
1811LondonMarylebone Park reverts to the Crown, allowing Nash to plan central London.
1812BritainThe Gas, Light and Coke Company receives its charter.
1812LeedsMiddleton Colliery Wagonway uses a steam engine with rack and pinion drive.
1812MoscowThe city is on fire.
1814Britain‘Puffing Billy’ steam engine is in action.
1814Isle of WightRyde ferry pier is constructed.
1815EuropeWar with Napoleon ends.
1815BritainNo building is considered complete without Greek columns.
1815Westminster26 miles of gas main is in use.
1816BritainGreenhouses are heated using hot water.
1816-Schinkel creates Egyptian-style stage sets.
1818BritainDodd brings out a patent for using iron bars in concrete as reinforcing.
1818BritainInstitution of Civil Engineers is established.
1819AtlanticA ship called the Savannah makes the crossing, partially assisted by steam power.
1819FranceEcole des Beaux-Arts (School of Fine Arts) is established.
1820sBritainThere are now 2,500 miles of English canals and another 500 miles in Scotland and Ireland.
1820sBritainLarge T and L section iron beams become available.
1820sBritainWilliam Fairbairn builds four iron ships.
1820sBritainA wooden house is sent in kit form to Saint Helena.
1820BrightonNash completes his Royal Pavilion, with its exposed internal ironwork.
1820BritainBirkinshaw introduces an improved method for rolling wrought iron rails for use in railways.
1820BritainTelford is made the first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers.
1822ScotlandTelford completes his Caledonian Canal.
1823BrightonThe Chain Pier is constructed.
1823LondonPaxton is working at Chiswick House.
1824MargatePier is built to serve boats.
1825BritainStockton and Darlington Railway is complete.
1825GermanyNazarenes return to their own country to establish the German School of Art.
1825LondonIsambard Kingdom Brunel directs work on the Thames Tunnel.
1825WalesTelford completes Menai Bridge, using iron bars in the concrete abutments.
1826BritainJoint Stock Banks established and the banking system is reformed.
1826ChatsworthPaxton is at work on the estate.
1826LondonSt Katherine’s Dock is built.
1826WalesTelford construct the Conway Bridge.
1827AtlanticA ship called the Curaçac makes the first all-steam crossing.
1830sBritainCholera outbreaks occur.
1830BritainGothic Revival begins to reach its peak.
1830BritainLiverpool and Manchester Railway is in service.
1831BristolWork begins on Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s Clifton suspension bridge.
1831FranceGlycerine is removed from candles by chemists.
1832BritainMichael Faraday discovers the relationship between electric current and magnetism.
1832Herne BayTelford constructs 3,600 foot wooden pier, but it’s ruined by marine worms in seven years.
1832HoveWilds creates the ‘Athaeum’, an iron and glass house, which then promptly collapses.
1835BritainThe Municipal Corporations Act establishes local government.
1835LondonNew Houses of Parliament are designed.
1836ChatsworthPaxton and Burton create 84-metre Great Conservatory, complete with wooden sash bars.
1836Menai StraitsTelford finishes the Menai Suspension Bridge.
1837BritainQueen Victoria takes the throne.
1837BritainSir John Soane dies.
1837BritainIsambard Kingdom Brunel’s ship, the PS Great Western, is launched.
1837LondonWork begins on the new Houses of Parliament.
1838BritainLondon and Birmingham Railway is complete.
1838LondonThe National Gallery is opened.
1839BelfastLanyon and Turner create the Palm House.
1839BritainThe Penny Post is introduced.
1840BritainBarry creates Grimson Park.
1840Britain60,000 people are rehoused over the next forty years to clear slum dwellings.
1840LondonBurton lays out Trafalgar Square.
1841BritainIsambard Kingdom Brunel completes the Great Western Railway between London and Bristol.
1841BritainThe Metropolitan Association for Improving Conditions of the Industrious Classes is set up.
1841GlasgowA wrought iron girder bridge is constructed.
1843BritainA kit-form iron palace is sent to King Eyambo in Africa.
1843BritainIsambard Kingdom Brunel’s SS Great Britain is launched.
1843FranceHennébique uses hooks and stirrups in reinforced concrete.
1843LondonMarc Brunel‘s Thames Tunnel is complete.
1844BritainFox and Barret take out patent for iron beams in a lime concrete floor.
1844BritainThe Shaftesbury Society is established.
1844LondonFowler becomes engineer to the London Metropolitan Railway.
1847BritainJames Prescott Joule discovers the Principle of the Conservation of Energy.
1847BritainLarge I section beams are available.
1847BritainLegislation is passed concerning public sewers.
1847BritainThe Ten Hours Act sets the maximum length of a working day.
1847LondonEuston station’s Great Hall is designed by P C Hardwick.
1847LondonThe British Museum is opened.
1847ScotlandThe Tay Bridge collapses, causing a train to fall into the water, with great loss of life.
1848BritainThe Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood is established.
1848FranceRevolution leads to Emperor Napoleon III taking the throne.
1848KewPalm House, built by Burton and Turner, is 19 metres high and 32 metre wide, with heating pipes provided under grilles.
1848LondonCity of London Sewers Act requires coffins in vaults to be of lead or lead-lined and airtight.
1849BritainRuskin publishes his ‘Seven Lamps of Architecture’.
1849ChatsworthPaxton’s Lily House is finished, with hollow beams as gutters and columns as drains.
1849LiverpoolLime Street station is built using galvanised corrugated iron.
1850Britain4,500 miles of canal are in use.
1850BritainBrick Tax is abolished.
1850Menai StraitsStephenson’s Rail bridge is complete.
1850ParisBibliothèque Ste-Geneviève by Labrouste, the French leader of the Rationalist school, is created using internal cast iron arches.
1851DoverFirst working submarine telegraphic cable is laid to Calais.
1851LondonGreat Exhibition is shown in Paxton’s prefabricated Crystal Palace.
1851ManchesterThe city’s population reaches 203,000.
1852BritainThe railway network is virtually complete.
1852LondonBunning completes the Coal Exchange in the City as well as Holloway Prison.
1853BritainIsambard Kingdom Brunel’s PS Great Eastern is launched.
1853Great YarmouthOne of the first ‘pleasure piers’ opens.
1853MargateJetty is created using cast iron ‘screw piles’ that are driven into the beach using capstans.
1854PaddingtonIsambard Kingdom Brunel’s New Station is opened.
1854SydenhamThe expanded Crystal Palace is moved to its new site.
1855BritainWorld’s first postal train runs between London and Bristol.
1855LondonBunning creates the Caledonian cattle market.
1856LondonCity of London Cemetery opened at Manor Park to end overcrowding of City graveyards.
1857AmericaOtis invents the elevator.
1857LondonThe PS Great Western is broken up.
1858FranceCoignet establishes patent for using iron rods in a concrete floor.
1859BritainJames Clerk Maxwell publishes his ‘Kinetic Theory of Gases’.
1859AmericaFirst chain store opens its doors.
1859AmericaOil is discovered in Pennsylvania
1859BritainCharles Darwin publishes ‘The Origin of Species’.
1859BritainIsambard Kingdom Brunel dies.
1859BromleyWebb completes The Red House with contributions by William Morris, Burne-Jones, Madox Brown, Arthur Hughes, Faulkner (and sisters), Webb and Swinburne
1859SaltashIsambard Kingdom Brunel’s Royal Albert Bridge is completed after his death.
1860sWorldForced air ventilation using steam and gas engines is introduced.
1860sSydenhamThe Crystal Palace High Level station is opened to to Ludgate Hill via the LC&DR, also known as the London, Smash ‘em and Turnover.
1860BelgiumEtienne Lenoir develops the internal combustion engine.
1860BritainKarl Marx begins ‘Das Kapital’.
1860EuropeHot water heating systems appear.
1860SouthportPier is completed, using hollow iron piles, each with a serrated base, that are driven into the sand by forcing water into the column. This ‘jetting’ process takes 20 to 30 minutes to sink a pile by 15 to 20 feet.
1861BritainThe firm of Morris, Marshall and Faulkner is founded
1861ItalySeparate states free themselves from Austria to form one nation.
1862AmericaThe country is crossed by railway.
1862BritainPeabody Trust is established.
1863Britain12 metre iron beams, as well as plates 5 metres by 212 metres by 112 mm are available.
1863BritainThe Improved Industrial Dwellings Company is set up.
1863EgyptSweet Water canal is completed, supplying fresh water alongside the course of the projected Suez canal.
1864BristolBrunel’s Clifton Suspension Bridge opens.
1864BritainA second Railway Mania begins but is followed by a crash four years later.
1865AustriaMendel presents his paper on chromosomes.
1865LondonBazalgette completes interception of sewage from the River Thames, complete with pumping stations at Crossness and Abbey Mills.
1866BrightonE Birch builds the West Pier.
1866LondonFour million tons of coal are used in the city.
1866SwedenNobel discovers a ‘safe’ explosive using nitroglycerine in gun cotton.
1866SydenhamFire destroys the North Transept of the Crystal Palace but it’s not rebuilt.
1867FranceF Coignet and J Monier experiment with reinforced concrete.
1867Liverpool‘The Octagon’ house in Grove St is ventilated using convection from the kitchen fire.
1868HertsRiver Lea Conservation Board is established.
1868ParisLabrouste creates the main reading room of Bibliothèque Nationale of iron arches and domes.
1869BritainThe Cutty Sark tea clipper is launched.
1870sWorldGermany and US overtake Britain’s steel production.
1870-Sturtevant creates patent for heating by means of blowing air over hot pipes.
1870FranceNapoleon falls from power, bringing the Second Empire to an end.
1870ItalyRome becomes the country’s new capital.
1870ParisRemodelling of the city is complete.
1870SaltaireThe model town is finished, with 820 houses in a grid pattern, an institute, church and mill.
1871ChicagoFire causes extensive damage and a need for rapid rebuilding.
1871KelmscottWilliam Morris leases Kelmscott Manor.
1873BritainMaxwell publishes his ‘Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism’, in which he shows that light and electricity are the same thing.
1873BritainWebb builds ‘Jolwyns’.
1873New YorkA fireproof reinforced concrete house called ‘Chester’ is created.
1875BritainMorris and Company is established and the original company members are paid off.
1875New YorkTribune Building is complete, rising to 260 ft, using a grid of stone piers and windows.
1875NorthwichAnderton Boat Lift opens: it links the Trent and Mersey Canal to the River Weaver, is designed by Edward Leader Williams and uses a unique hydraulic mechanism.
1875ParisGarnier completes Opéra building, the Beaux-Arts ideal.
1876BritainWebb builds Rounton Grange.
1878BritainWebb creates Smeaton Manor.
1879AmericaEdison develops electric light.
1880sWorldArt Nouveau appears.
1880sBritainPreservation Societies are established.
1880sBritainVoysey is creating wallpaper and textiles.
1880sChicagoSkyscrapers begin to appear as a solution to the disastrous city fire.
1880sHertsPollution controls are introduced on the River Lea.
1880AmericaCooling of Madison Square Theatre is achieved by passing air over blocks of ice.
1880LiverpoolWork begins on the Anglican Cathedral by G G Scott, which isn’t completed until 1960.
1881MiddlesbroughThe population reaches 60,000.
1882BritainAncient Monuments Protection Act is passed.
1882BritainMetropolitan and Public Gardens Association is formed.
1883BrusselsPoelaert builds the Palace of Justice, a huge neo-Baroque building.
1884GreenwichGreenwich Meridian is recognised as the Prime Meridian.
1885BritainHousing the Working Classes Act is designed to create council housing.
1886GermanyDaimler introduces a four-wheeled car.
1886WorldThe use of aluminium is developed.
1887BritainQueen Victoria celebrates her Jubilee.
1887BritainThe Channel Tunnel Company Ltd is formed by former rivals.
1887FalklandsBrunel’s ship the SS Great Britain arrives at Port Stanley and remains there for 50 years.
1888GermanyHeinrich Hertz discovers radio waves and that they travel at the speed of light.
1888Port SunlightWork begins on this model town with its eclectic architecture.
1889ParisThe Paris Exhibition (or Exposition) includes Eiffel Tower at 984 feet (300 metres) and the huge hall of The Palace of Machines.
1889BritainVoysey creates Tudor style vernacular houses.
1890BritainThe Gothic Revival ends.
1890BritainShaw switches from Dutch, William and Mary or Queen Anne styles to Classical.
1890ChicagoA 16-storey building is constructed.
1891BritainThe National Trust is set up.
1891BritainWebb builds ‘Clouds’.
1891LondonVoysey builds his Studio House at West Kensington using pebble-dash, broad eaves, sloping buttresses and unmoulded windows.
1892BritainThe Great Western railway runs its last broad-gauge train.
1892BritainWebb builds ‘Standen’.
1892BrusselsHorta’s Tassel House is built in Art Nouveau style.
1893BritainNational Society for Checking Abuse of Public Advertising is established.
1893WorldArt Nouveau reaches its zenith: ‘the asymmetrical flaming shape derived from nature, and handled with a certain wilfulness or bravado, and the refusal to accept any ties with the past’.
1894Britain‘Country Life’ is first published.
1894ManchesterThe Ship Canal opens.
1894WorldOliver Lodge uses a coherer to receive Morse Code radio messages.
1895BritainMichelin introduces the pneumatic tyre.
1895LondonBoundary Street Estate is built at Shoreditch in a five-storey ‘Arts and Crafts’ style.
1895WorldAlexander Popov uses a coherer to detect lightning flashes.
1896BrightonChain Pier is destroyed in a storm.
1896BritainGuglielmo Marconi demonstrates his radio equipment.
1896GlasgowMackintosh builds his School of Art.
1896KelmscottDeath of William Morris and his funeral at Kelmscott church, with Edward Burne-Jones saying: ‘There were no kings there - the king was being buried and there were no others left’.
1896WorldThe Olympic Games are restarted.
1897GlasgowMackintosh builds the Glasgow School of Art.
1897SurreyLutyens creates Tigbourne Court, with its massing, rusticated stonework and smooth banding.
1898BritainOliver Lodge takes out a patent for the ‘Moving Coil Loudspeaker’, which awaits the arrival of electronics to drive it.
1898Britain‘Tomorrow’ is published by Ebenezer Howard.
1898BritainVoysey builds Broadleys by Lake Windermere with its plain bay windows.
1898BritainMarconi transmits 60 miles across the sea.
1899BrightonThe Brighton Marine Palace and Pier (BMPP) opens.
1899Britain‘Garden Cities of Tomorrow’ is published by Ebenezer Howard.
1899BritainGarden Cities Association established, later the Town and Country Planning Association.
1899BritainGreat Central Railway is complete but no dividend is ever paid.
1899BritainMarconi transmits across the English Channel.
1900AmericaKitty Hawk flying machines are under development.
1900BirminghamLethaby creates the Eagle Insurance building.
1900ManchesterThe city’s population now exceeds 600,000.
1900WorldHennébique has completed 100 reinforced concrete bridges in the previous 20 years.
1900WorldUS and German industry expands, and there is ‘sabre rattling’ by Kaiser Wilhelm II.
1900WorldZeppelin airships in use.
1901BritainQueen Victoria is dead.
1901BritainMarconi transmits across the Atlantic.
1901ParisLavirotte completes Avenue Rapp flats in a weirdly organic Art Nouveau style.
1901ScotlandMackintosh completes the Windyhill house at Kilmacolm.
1902BerkshireLutyens completes Deanery Garden.
1902EnglandLethaby completes Brockhampton church.
1902ParisFlats are built of reinforced concrete.
1902SurreyVoysey builds Vodin House at Pyrford Common with a plain arched entrance.
1902SussexLutyens completes Little Thakeham.
1902TurinThe Exhibition of Decorative Arts includes interiors by Mackintosh.
1903AmericaFirst flight of the Wright brothers from Kitty Hawk.
1903BelfastRoyal Victoria Hospital is complete, with air fed to each room and humidity control provided using ropes sprayed with water.
1903WestminsterMillbank Estate is built in the form of 17 blocks, each of five storeys.
1904America40% of the economy is now in the hands of 300 companies.
1904AmericaOlds invents the assembly line.
1904BritainJohn Ambrose Fleming discovers the thermionic valve.
1904BritainWireless Telegraphy Act puts radio under control of the Postmaster General.
1904LetchworthWork begins on Parker and Unwin’s Letchworth Garden City.
1904ScotlandMackintosh completes Hill House at Helensburgh.
1905BritainHousing trusts rehouse a total of 123,000 people.
1905GlasgowMackintosh builds the Scotland Street School.
1905WorldArt Nouveau is in decline.
1906BritainDunwoody takes out patent for a crystal radio detector that uses a fragment of galena.
1906BuffaloLloyd Wright builds Larkin office building without windows but with corner air vents.
1906NorfolkHome Place by E S Prior is built with zigzag brickwork.
1906WorldConduit Weathermaster humidity control system is developed.
1907AmericaDee Le Forest invents the triode thermionic valve for amplifying electrical signals.
1907BerlinBehrens builds his ‘Modernist’ AEG Factory.
1907GermanyThe Deutscher Werkbund is founded by Hermann Muthesius.
1907LondonHammersmith Public Baths are built using reinforced concrete.
1907LondonWork begins on Selfridge’s, constructed over a steel frame with decorative columns and in the Beaux-Arts style.
1907LondonParker and Unwin begin work on Hampstead Garden Suburb.
1908New YorkThe first reinforced concrete sky-scraper is complete.
1909AmericaFord begins to make his Model T car.
1909BritainMarconi is awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.
1909BritainAn Act of Parliament is passed concerning reinforced concrete.
1909BritainBlériot crosses the Channel by aeroplane.
1909BritainThe Town Planning Act is passed.
1909ItalyOver the next five years Sant’Elia puts forward his ideas on Futurism and his design for a multi-layered city.
1910LeedsA six-storey office block is built of reinforced concrete.
1910LondonHampstead Garden Suburb is finished, complete with square incorporating two churches, as created by Lutyens.
1910LondonGrafton Galleries show the first ‘Post-Impressionist’ exhibition by the Bloomsbury Group.
1910WorldLarge buildings begin to employ fan-forced ventilation.
1911GermanyGropius’s Fagus Factory employs glass and steel over cantilevered floors, bringing to birth the International Style.
1911GlasgowMackintosh builds his Tea Rooms for Miss Cranston.
1911ViennaThe Steinerhaus, a house of reinforced concrete, is created by Loos.
1911WorldExpressionist paintings by Matisse and Van Gogh follow the principles of ‘will to form’ and Nietzsche’s ‘Superman’.
1912AtlanticTitanic sinks but the use of radio messages saves 700 lives.
1912LondonBaker Street Station offices are built using reinforced concrete.
1912LondonLondon County Council (LCC) creates the Old Oak Estate.
1913DenmarkBohr presents his model of the atom.
1913LeipzigSchmitz creates Leipzig Memorial using terrifying ‘brute force’ Expressionism.
1913LondonRoger Fry founds the Omega Workshops.
1913New YorkG Gilbert’s Woolworth Building is complete; the first true skyscraper, with 42 floors and reaching 760 feet (232 metres).
1914CologneWerkbund Exhibition features The Glass House, which has a glass brick and iron staircase, a prismatic dome and walls of glass bricks.
1914BritainJane Morris dies aged 74 and is buried next to William Morris
1914BritainThe Town Planning Institute is established.
1914FranceCorbusier introduces his system for reinforced concrete houses, in which the slabs are held apart by columns.
1914WorldWorld War I begins.
1917HollandCubism founds De Stijl: ‘where comfort has yielded to geometry’.
1918BritainTudor Walters Report proposes housing density of 30 houses per hectare, each of two storeys with a back and front garden. This results in the suburban sprawl of the 1920s and 1930s.
1918BritainFour million homes are built from now until the outbreak of World War II in 1939.
1918WorldWorld War I ends.
1919ChelmsfordMarconi’s system is used for experimental radio broadcasts.
1919GermanyGropius establishes the Wiemer Art School.
1920s-Expressionism reaches its zenith.
1920BritainThe General Post Office provides licensing for radio amateurs.
1920ParisCorbusier exhibits his ideas for redeveloping the city at the Paris Exposition.
1920SydenhamThe Crystal Palace reopens and is later used as temporary War Museum.
1921LondonLCC creates the Roehampton Cottage Estate.
1922FranceCorbusier introduces his Citrohan type houses, consisting of white boxes built on stilts with split levels and roof patios.
1922GermanyKandinsky and Klee arrive at the Bauhaus.
1922ItalyMussolini becomes dictator.
1922Los AngelesFull mechanical air conditioning is used in a theatre.
1923LondonLutyens’ Britannic (later Lutyens) House, near Finsbury Circus and Moorgate, is complete.
1924UtrechtRietveld builds the first house in the International Modern Movement style.
1925GermanyGropius builds and sets up the Bauhaus School at Dessau.
1925ParisParis Exhibition sees the arrival of Art Deco and is a long-term influence.
1926BritainThe Great Strike brings the country to a halt.
1926BritainJohn Logie Baird demonstrates his 30-line television system.
1926YorkshireLutyens builds Gledstone Hall.
1927AmericaFord produce the 15 millionth Model T Ford, also known as the ‘Tin Lizzie’.
1928GermanyGropius is replaced at the Bauhaus by Mies Van de Rohe.
1928TexasAn air-conditioned office block is built in San Antonia.
1929AmericaWall Street crash begins a world slide into economic depression.
1929BritainThe British Broadcasting Company (BBC) is established, later to become the British Broadcasting Corporation.
1929BritainBBC transmits television images using the Baird system.
1929London‘Georgian Classical’ estate is created in Kensington’s China Walk.
1930sEuropePolitical instability with the rise of Hitler and Mussolini, as well as the Spanish Civil War.
1930FranceR Maillart introduces beam-less concrete floor slabs that are placed on ‘mushroom’ columns.
1930New YorkThe 1,000 foot Chrysler Building is finished, complete with ‘telescoping’ aluminium top.
1930WorldThe International Modern Movement arrives, along with controversy.
1931New DelhiLutyens completes Viceroy’s House and Mogul Garden.
1931New YorkEmpire State Building is constructed.
1932DevonLutyens completes Castle Drogo.
1932FranceAt Thiepval, near Arras, Lutyens creates his Memorial to the Missing of the Somme.
1932GermanyThe Modern Movement is banned.
1932LutonG G Scott creates Saint Andrew’s Church using special thin bricks.
1933FranceCorbusier produces his manifesto, known as the ‘Athens Charter’.
1933FranceCorbusier publishes ‘The Radiant City’.
1933GermanyNational Socialism appears and the Bauhaus is closed.
1934LondonG G Scott finishes Battersea Power Station, with fluted chimneys to hint at Classicism
1935BritainThe housing boom comes to an end.
1935BritainJenny Morris, daughter of William Morris, is dead.
1936Britain1 October: the BBC broadcasts its first scheduled TV broadcast.
1936ParisCorbusier constructs houses using concrete beams, with exposed brick for internal walls.
1936Sydenham30 November: the Crystal Palace is destroyed by fire.
1937AmericaSteel production now equals the total produced by France, Germany, Italy, Britain and Japan.
1937BritainThe BBC begins regular television transmissions.
1937FalklandsBrunel’s SS Great Britain is towed to Sparrow Cove and beached.
1937LondonLutyens completes Midland Bank at Poultry, where each stone course is set ⅛ inch further back and one-inch recessions are used at levels where the rustication is discontinued.
1937ParisParis Exposition features Corbusier’s Pavillion, which carries a Communist and radical slogan: ‘a new era has begun, an era of solidarity’.
1938BritainThe Green Belts are introduced around cities.
1938BritainMay Morris dies, causing Morris and Company to shut down.
1939WorldWorld War II begins.
1941LiverpoolLutyens creates the crypt for the Roman Catholic Cathedral.
1942Chicago2 December, 3:25 pm: the control rods are lifted from the world’s first nuclear reactor.
1942Germany3 October: the first V2 rocket is launched by Wernher Von Braun.
1944BritainExperimental colour television transmissions begin.
1945BritainTwo million homes have been damaged or destroyed in the war.
1945EuropeThe Iron Curtain is created, dividing Europe between Western and Russian influences.
1945HiroshimaMonday, 6 August: an atom bomb equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT is dropped on Hiroshima: ‘no cause for alarm’, ‘We have spent $2,000,000,000 on the greatest scientific gamble in history and won’.
1945London89,000 LCC homes have been damaged by the war and only 2,500 are beyond repair, but the LCC aims to build 100,000 new properties.
1945Nagasaki8 August: The world’s second atom bomb is dropped.
1945WorldWorld War II ends.
1946Britain200,000 families are rehoused and 40,000 prefabs are built.
1947BritainThe First National Radio Exhibition takes place.
1947BritainCoal mines are nationalised.
1948BritainBank of England, electricity and the railways are nationalised. The British Transport Commission is established.
1948BritainThe Welfare State appears with the National Health Service and Family Allowance.
1948Britain14 New Towns are planned, with 200,000 houses to be built annually.
1949BritainThe gas industry is nationalised.
1950sBritainCLASP grid-based system is used for prefabricated schools.
1950sJapanThe ‘economic miracle’ begins.
1950sWorldFluorescent lighting is introduced, reducing heat generation and electricity costs.
1950sWorldRussians and Americans compete in outer space.
1950New YorkNew UN Building is finished, complete with humidity control.
1951HunstantonSmithson completes school in a ‘New Brutalist’ style, using steel and pre-cast concrete, but it’s impossible to maintain.
1952Heathrow1.25 million people pass through the airport in this year.
1952LondonThe Festival of Britain is visited by eight million people.
1952MarseillesCorbusier completes his Unité d’Habitation, which is based on ‘socialist principles’, accommodating 1600 people as well as shops. It’s crudely finished, as the concrete is moulded using rough timber planks.
1953Britain42% of people still travel by bus.
1953New YorkUN Secretariat Building is completed, featuring glass curtain walls.
1955LondonThe city becomes a ‘smokeless zone’.
1956AmericaNobel prize is given to Shockley, Bratten and Bardeen, the joint inventors of the transistor.
1956AtlanticNew submarine telegraphic cable is in use.
1956BritainFirst nuclear reactor at Calder Hall power station is in service.
1956LondonLCC Brookland Park Estate at Blackheath is built of five-storey blocks and houses.
1958EuropeThe Common Market emerges.
1960LiverpoolG G Scott’s Anglican Cathedral is completed after 80 years.
1960sBritainMechanical services now take 33% of the cost of a building.
1960sWorldCurrency crises bring financial instability.
1960sWorldMultinational companies are established.
1960sWorldNew Brutalism, the creation of buildings using raw or un-faced concrete, is favoured.
1964LeicesterStirling completes his much-acclaimed University Engineering Building, built of hard red brick in a ‘neo-Constructivism’ or ‘pseudo-functionalist’ form. Despite the praise, it has structural problems and suffers from damp.
1967Dover21,000 lorries pass through the port in this year.
1967LondonLasdun completes National Theatre on the South Bank in a heavy concrete Brutalist form.
1970FalklandsBrunel’s SS Great Britain is towed back on a pontoon from Falkland Islands to Avonmouth. Then onwards to Bristol under Brunel’s Clifton suspension bridge on her ‘own bottom’.
1970sBritain2,600 miles of canals are still operational with another 1,900 miles out of use.
1970sChicagoThe Sears Tower is completed, reaching a height of 1,450 feet.
1970sHeathrow32 million people pass through the airport each year.
1970sLondonThe Greater London Council (GLC) creates buildings that are lower and closer together.
1970sNew YorkWorld Trade Towers are built to a height of 1,350 feet.
1970sWorldHigh Tech architecture becomes popular, with ‘services’ highlighted by silver, scarlet and royal blue paintwork.
1970sWorldArchitecture sees the return of half-circular arches, pitched roofs, decoration and mouldings.
1971LondonThe Channel Tunnel Company Ltd of 1887 continues to trade on the Stock Exchange and is renamed Channel Tunnel Investments.
1971LondonOld houses are updated in Portchester Square.
1972ParisPiano and Rogers begin their Pompidou Centre, in which exposed working parts of the building are painted in bright colours.
1973EuropeBritain, Denmark and Ireland join the Common Market.
1973SydneyUtzon creates the Sydney Opera House, using reinforced concrete shells over ‘Aztec’ terraces and showing a move towards ‘organic’ architecture.
1977NorwichNorman Foster creates the Sainsbury Centre at the University of East Anglia in High-Tech Modern Style: ‘a well-serviced metal-clad barn’.
1979LondonRichard Rogers begins on the Lloyds Building: ‘expressed structure and exposed services as an ornamental order’.
1980sBritainCouncils now house a total of 18 million people.
1980sBritainSome tower blocks are demolished after less than 20 years.
1980sBritainMechanical services now take 50% of building costs.
1980sBritainOld houses are being refurbished throughout the country.
1980Britain18,000 parish churches still survive, of which half are listed, 2,000 Grade A, whilst more than a million small Georgian homes survive.
1980Venice‘Presence of the Past’ exhibition indicates the start of Post-Modernism, with work by Venturi, Moore, Bofil and Krier.
1981Dover510,000 lorries pass through the port in this year.
1982BritainThere are 40,470 hectares (ha) of underused land, located on 11,000 different sites.
1983Britain500,000 buildings are now listed.
1983BritainThe Green Belt now consists of 4½ million acres in 15 areas, of which 1.2 million acres encircle London.
1983BritainOnly 8% of passengers now travel by bus.
1983BritainRoad traffic increases by 4%. 86% of all goods and 98% of consumer goods go by road.
1983Heathrow294 million people pass through the airport in this year.
1986BritainGovernment sets up the Urban Development Corporations.
1991LondonCanary Wharf Tower in Docklands, as designed by Cesar Pelli, is completed.
1991StanstedNorman Foster completes airport building in High-Tech style: ‘elegant column trees on an expansive grid’.
1998Kuala LumpurCesar Pell completes tapered Petronas Towers with Islamic-inspired polygonal plans.
2000Britain3,000 miles of canals are now operational.
2001New York11 September: Twin towers of the World Trade Center are destroyed by terrorists.
2001Britain200 miles of waterways are reopened, including the Huddersfield Narrow, Rochdale, the Forth and Clyde and the Union Canals.