Internet Software

The Classic Mac OS usually includes all the necessary software for getting onto the Internet. You then need an Internet Service Provider (ISP), who should give you an Internet address and access phone number, as well as the following:-

User Name: a short name, as agreed with your ISP

Password: used to prevent unauthorised access to your Internet account

Domain Name System (DNS) addresses: numerical codes of name server addresses

Search Domains: one or more Internet addresses used for searches (not always used)

Some ISPs provide special software that lets you to establish a connection. This can be in the form of an Internet wizard application that asks you questions, the answers to most of which can be provided by your ISP. If you don’t want to use this software (and it isn’t compulsory) you may prefer to set up your machine manually. In fact, doing it by hand should give you a better understanding of how the whole thing works. The control panels provided in later versions of the Classic Mac OS should be set up as shown below. A similar procedure can be used for other operating systems.

  TCP/IP

For a dial-up connection via a modem you should choose PPP in the Connect via menu and then select Using PPP Server under the Configure menu. Next you’ll need to enter the name server addresses in the Name server addr box: typically two or three numerical codes are used, each of which should be separated by a carriage return. Finally you should enter one or more addresses in the Search domains box, although you should leave it blank if your ISP doesn’t use such an address.

The panel can be operated in Basic, Advanced or Administration mode, the latter with password protection. In Administration mode certain features can be locked out from the other modes, thereby preventing other users from making changes. The Options button in Advanced and Administration modes lets you to turn the panel on or off. And all of your settings can be stored as a Configuration for later recall, although this usually isn’t necessary if you have only one ISP account. Finally, the panel also gives easy access to the related PPP and Modem control panels.

  Remote Access

You should enter your Name (your user name, not your real name), Password (you should also enable Save password) and Number (this being the phone number used to reach the Internet).

You can also change other settings by clicking on Options. In particular, you should look at the Protocol tab. Here, for example, you can choose to automatically make a connection whenever you run any Internet application by clicking on Connect automatically when starting TCP/IP applications. This adds some confusion, however, as some applications don’t actually make a connection until actually required while others make the connection whenever they’re launched, making it inconvenient if you want to browse files locally without actually going online.

  Modem

For a dial-up connection via a modem you should select the appropriate choices in the Connect via and Modem pop-up menus. Most of the other options are usually best left as they are.

  Internet

This panel supports the Internet Configuration System (ICS), also known as Internet Config, which duplicates some of the settings in the Preferences windows of some Internet applications. The more obscure items are best left alone, especially those under the Advanced tab.

The panel is divided into four tabs:-

Personal

Name: your actual name, not to be confused with your user name.

E-mail Address: your full e-mail address, which is also used as a password when visiting anonymous FTP sites. Such an address is usually in the form of fred@bloggs.com

Organization (optional): the name of your company.

Other Information (optional): can be used for the address or phone number employed for Finger server searches. A Finger is an application that displays information about the users logged onto a network. This information is also known as a ‘Plan’.

Signature (optional): contains text that you want to appear at the end of every e-mail or news item that you produce. There can be a maximum of four lines, each containing no more than 75 characters.

E-mail

Users Account ID: also known as the e-mail users account name, such as fred, although where multiple users are supported it can be in the form of mail%bloggs.com.

Incoming Mail Server: host name of your POP mail server, such as pop.bloggs.com.

Password: your e-mail password, as agreed with your ISP (bullets are shown in the box).

Outgoing (SMTP) Mail Server: the SMTP mail server host, such as smtp.bloggs.com.

E-mail Notification: this can be left until later.

Default E-mail Application: often set to Outlook Express.

Web

Home Page (optional): the page your Web browser goes to when first launched.

Search Page (optional): your default Web search site, such as http://www.excite.com.

Download Files To: the folder used for receiving files from the Web.

Colours & Links: usually best left alone.

Default Web Browser: often set to Internet Explorer.

News

News (NNTP) Server: host name of your news server, such as nntp.bloggs.com. This is also known as the Usenet server address.

Connect to news server as: if you have a registered user name select Registered User.

Name: your registered user name, as agreed with your ISP. If unknown you can leave this blank. Other software may enter your domain name into this box, such as bloggs.com.

Password: your news password (bullets are shown). If unknown you can leave this blank. Other software may enter your standard password (not your e-mail password) into this box.

Default News Application: often set to Outlook Express.

Advanced

This tab, which contains sections for File Transfer, Helper Apps, Fonts, File Mapping, Firewalls, Messages and Hosts, is usually best left alone. In fact, many of these settings are automatically determined using ICS (see below).

  Controlling the Connection

If your computer is set to do it, you may get an automatic connection when you launch your first Internet application, unless the application is set for offline operation. In most instances, however you’ll have to connect manually. The following methods are available in the Classic Mac OS:-

Depending on your setup, you may have to enter your password. If the connection doesn’t work you should verify the control panel settings, double-checking with your ISP if you have any doubts. Having finished with the Internet you can disconnect using one of the following methods:-

If all else fails you may need to shut down your computer and remove the power from your modem. Apparently, you can also break the connection by putting a PowerBook to sleep: unfortunately, this doesn’t work with desktop models.

  Advanced Internet Settings

The Advanced section in the Internet control panel provided in the Classic Mac OS operates in conjunction with the Internet Configuration System (ICS), also known as Internet Config. This allows you to set the preferences for most of your Internet applications in a single operation, usually from within the Internet control panel.

ICS requires the Internet Config Extension file to be in the Extensions folder, inside the System Folder. Its settings can be adjusted from the Internet panel or from the Preferences window of a modern Internet application. Alternatively, you can use a special program known as Internet Config.

Any changes that you make are kept in Internet Preferences, inside the Preferences folder in the System Folder. When any ICS-aware application is launched it looks inside this file and uses the appropriate settings, although specific options set in the application itself may override these.

The sections described below appear in the Advanced section of the Internet control panel, although not all of these settings are influenced by the ICS mechanism.

  File Transfer

This section of the panel is concerned with FTP transfers.

Archie Server: sets your Archie server, as selected from the pop-up menu (country and site) or entered as required. The Archie protocol is used for searching archive sites.

Info-Mac Server: sets your Info-Mac mirror, an alternative site for Info-Mac services, which is used when the real site is too busy to accept all users. You can use the pop-up menu or enter your own site.

UMich Server: sets your UMich mirror, an alternative site for UMich services, which is used when the real site is too busy to accept all users. You can use the pop-up menu or enter your own site.

  Helper Apps

A protocol helper can be used open those URLs that your current Internet application doesn’t understand. For example, Internet Explorer can’t deal with mailto, the protocol for an e-mail message, so it needs an appropriate helper, such as Outlook Express. Once this application is assigned as the mailto helper it handles all URLs that uses the protocol, such as mailto:fred@bloggs.co.uk.

Here are a few other examples, some of which are rather obscure:-

ProtocolHelper
http:Internet Explorer
mailto:Outlook Express
ftp:Internet Explorer
gopher:Internet Explorer
wais:MacWAIS
netphone:NetPhone
tm3270:tm3270

It’s worth noting that Internet Explorer itself is a helper, since it assists other Internet applications that can’t deal with http or ftp. Explorer can also be used by other applications to present a gopher database site, employing this rather outdated protocol to show a tree of links to documents, applications or other Gopher menus that exist on the Internet.

The list in the Helper Apps section of the Internet panel shows all the helper applications that have already been enabled. When you click the Add button a New Helper Application window appears. You should then enter some memorable text in the Description box and the MIME type in the Type box, if necessary. Then click on the Select button to choose the actual helper application.

  Fonts

This section lets you select the fonts for viewing and printing text. Note that a monospaced font is essential for viewing some of the textual data derived from the Internet. In addition, some Internet applications provide a greater control over fonts, ignoring the ICS settings in this section.

The following fonts can be selected in the Advanced section:-

List font: used for mailbox summaries, news group listings and FTP directory listings.

Screen font: a monospaced font for the body text of mail and news messages.

Printer font: equivalent of the screen font but only used for monospaced printing.

  File Mapping

This section determines the Mac OS file type and creator codes that are given to incoming files, based on their filename extensions, thereby determining which application is used to open each kind of file. Note however, that a Web browser often overrides the settings in this section for those files that can be viewed using a plug-in, allowing the plug-in to be used instead of the normal application.

The listings window shows each filename Extension, a Description that provides information about the kind of file and the Application currently chosen to open it. By clicking on the appropriate column heading you can choose a different sort order for the list.

If you select an item and click on Change a list of suitable applications appears, allowing you to choose an appropriate program by clicking on Select. The window also shows the File Type and File Creator codes for the particular kind of file, both of which you can change.

If you click on Show Advanced Options you’re provided with further information, allowing you to change the Description of the file or the optional MIME Type. You’ll also see that files come as:-

Macintosh: containing both the data and resource forks used in Mac OS documents.

Plain Text: an ASCII text file, usually limited to the characters shown on a keyboard.

Binary Data: containing any binary values and used for graphical or other material.

The Map Incoming and Map Outgoing check boxes enable mapping in specific directions while the Handle by menu allows the data to be simply saved as a file or processed by the application.

  Firewalls

A firewall gives security to a local network by limiting Internet traffic with the outside world. To do this, all data can be passed through a secure host computer, which is the only machine connected to the Internet. In such a computer-based firewall an application known as a proxy can be used to allow specific information through the firewall. Other systems use a router-based firewall with packet filtering: in a screening firewall all users have Internet-routable IP addresses while in a Network Address Translation (NAT) firewall each user has a private address.

All Internet applications use software ports or sockets, each with a specific number. For example, port 25 is usually used for e-mail, port 80 for the Web and port 548 for file sharing. Typical firewall software either enables or disables specific ports. Enabling chosen ports is the safest option.

The settings in this section of the Internet panel are as follows:-

SOCKS Firewall: this should contain an address of the form wall.bloggs.co.uk. A Port number, such as 704 may also be entered, which is effectively the same as wall.bloggs.co.uk:704.

Web Proxy: you should enter an address of the form proxy.bloggs.co.uk, with Port as, say, 708.

Gopher Proxy: contains an address similar to the above.

FTP Proxy: contains an address similar to the above.

FTP Proxy Options: this button gives access to the following settings:-

Connect to FTP proxy server as registered user: select as required

Name (not usually required): if in doubt leave blank.

Password (not usually required): second security level.

Account (not usually required): third security level.

Bypass proxies for these hosts: this box contains domain names of sites that can be reached directly without the above proxies, such as the domains within a single organisation.

  Messages

This section contains extra settings for e-mail and news messages.

Characters to indicate quoted text in reply messages: usually a > character.

Add the following text to the top of all outgoing e-mail messages: lets you have a header for every e-mail that you send.

Add the following text to the top of all outgoing news messages: lets you have a header for every news message that you send.

  Hosts

This contains the addresses of special servers or host sites that can help you use the Internet.

Ph Host: the address of your Ph server, which is used as a ‘phone directory’ to find e-mail addresses within an organisation. The host address is usually in the form of ph.bloggs.co.uk.

Finger Host: the address of your Finger server, which gets information about an Internet user using the Other Information in the Personal section. This address is of the form finger.bloggs.co.uk.

Whois Host: the address of your ‘whois’ server, an almost obsolete protocol for finding e-mail addresses. This host address is in the form of whois.bloggs.co.uk.

Telnet Host: the address of your Telnet server, as used for text-based telnet connections. This has an address of the form thing.bloggs.co.uk.

FTP Host: your FTP server, which has an address such as ftp.bloggs.co.uk.

Gopher Host: your Gopher server, which has an address such as gopher.bloggs.co.uk.

WAIS Gateway: the address of your WAIS gateway, which is used for searching for information on the Internet. This has an address of the form wais.bloggs.co.uk.

LDAP Server: the address of your X.500 LDAP server, as used for finding mail addresses and other data. This has an address of the form ldap.bloggs.co.uk.

LDAP Searchbase: the address of your X.500 LDAP search base (see above).

Mac OS 7.x to 8.1

The remaining sections mainly refer to Mac OS 8.1 or earlier. If you have a later system, which is almost certainly the case, you needn’t read any further.

As with later systems, connecting to the Internet requires specific files in the System Folder that have been set up correctly. More recent versions of the Mac OS come complete with these files and other Internet applications, whilst others require the Apple Internet Connection Kit (AICK). However, much of the software in this package is also available from other sources.

The three options for implementing TCP/IP in older systems are as follows:

Open Transport (OT/PPP)

The is the ideal arrangement. It employs the entire Open Transport (OT) package, as supplied with later version of the Classic Mac OS. It uses the standard TCP/IP control panel, the Remote Access (or PPP) panel, containing the PPP dialler software, and the Modem panel. This combination of software is known as OT/PPP to avoid confusion with the various other forms of PPP.

Open Transport and MacPPP

This also employs Open Transport but uses a PPP extension (also known as MacPPP) instead of the PPP control panel. MacPPP must be selected in the TCP/IP panel and its settings adjusted using an application such as Config PPP, Apple Internet Dialler or Apple Internet Status. Similar extensions that provide alternative forms PPP, such as FreePPP, can also be selected in the TCP/IP panel, although these need to be configured using appropriate software. The Remote Access (or PPP) and Modem control panels are not required for this option.

MacTCP

This can only be used on an old 680x0-based machine, although it’s ideal for computers that can’t employ Open Transport or where OT is found to consume excessive RAM. The TCP/IP panel is replaced by an older MacTCP panel and a PPP extension is used, as described in the previous section.

The Remote Access (or PPP) and Modem control panels are not required for this option. If necessary, you can entirely disable OT/PPP by removing these as well as the OpenTpt Remote Access, OpenTpt Modem and OpenTpt Serial Arbitrator files in the Extensions folder, in addition to PPP Commands in the Scripting Additions folder, also in the Extensions folder.

Link Access Modules

The PPP extension described above is a Link Access Module or mdev, which provides alternative software to that built into Open Transport. Any available mdev can be selected in the current TCP/IP or MacTCP panel. Other files of this kind include FreePPP, InterPPP, Sonic PPP and AOL Link. Your ISP can supply you with a special mdev if required. Many others are available as freeware.

In the unlikely event of your ISP not supporting PPP, you may have to use Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP). This is provided by mdevs such as InterSLIP, MacSLIP and VersaTerm SLIP.

For operation over ISDN you must use special mdev, such as SAGEM ISDN PPP. For two ISDN channels, or a pair of modems employed for greater speed, you can use MultiLink PPP.

Older Panels and Applications

The most common control panels and applications for older versions of the Mac OS are described below. As already mentioned, some of these panels also require a matching mdev file.

TCP/IP

This panel, also described above, establishes the basic protocol for your Internet connection. The Connect via menu, shown below, lets you select any mdev or any other protocol supported by the system. In most cases you’ll select either PPP, for OT/PPP (see above) or MacPPP, for the common PPP extension. Unfortunately a whole raft of mdevs, such as Pacer PPP, FCR PPP and Tribe PPP, all appear in the menu as TCP/IP PPP. The following screen shots are for MacPPP.

In this case MacPPP is effectively a server, automatically providing your IP Address and other addresses. The Subnet mask is the IP addresses for your part of a network (if you’re in one), whilst the Router address contains the IP addresses for any routers used to connect you to other networks.

The Configure Menu

If you select Using PPP Manually under Configure the upper part of the window changes to:-

In this instance you must enter your IP Address by hand, as shown, although this can cause confusion if the mdev itself is using a different number. Boot Protocol (BootP), as used by some servers over Ethernet, appears in the Configure menu for MacPPP, as shown here:-

although the Subnet mask and Router address values may need to be entered by hand. If there are several routers, each IP addresses must be typed into the box, separated by pressing the Return key. If you don’t enter these addresses you may find yourself isolated on one ‘wing’ of a network. Another server protocol, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) appears as:-

For a Macintosh Internet Protocol (MacIP) server operating over an AppleTalk network you must select AppleTalk (MacIP) in the Connect via menu. MacIP translates TCP/IP data packets into a form suitable for transmission over AppleTalk. A MacIP server, which by nature must be running the MacIP software, stores the IP addresses that it assigns to other computers. If you select Using MacIP Server in the Configure menu the settings are provided automatically:-

but if you select Using MacIP Manually you’ll have to enter the settings yourself:-

Domain Name System (DNS)

The Domain Name System gives each Internet computer a domain name, which is easier to remember than its matching IP address, as shown by these examples:-

IP AddressDomain Name
67.56.89.5dataserver.sales.slugcorp.com.uk
68.79.123.56wxyltd.co

The relationships between addresses and names is kept in a DNS database, either locally in a Hosts file, inside the System Folder, or on one or more remote name server computers. The latter are often maintained by your ISP and provide comprehensive site lists. The IP addresses for the required name servers should be entered in the Name server addr box, as shown here:-

Up to 255 characters can be typed in the box and each address should be separated by pressing Return. If you want to use several servers you should enter the most reliable one on the top line.

If you prefer to use a Hosts file you should click on the Select Hosts File button at the top right and then select a text file that contains your IP addresses and names. The control panel initially looks for the Hosts file in Preferences and then in the System Folder itself. However, since such a file is unlikely to keep track of all the addresses and names that you use, it’s easier to use a name server.

Implicit Search Paths

Operation over a network can be accelerated if other computers can be found by using just part of a name, also known as an implicit search path. To enable this you should enter a Starting domain name and Ending domain name for your computer in the boxes provided:-

For example, if your full domain name is

harry.sales.hq.slugcorp.com

then your local or starting domain name should be

sales.hq.slugcorp.com

and the larger or ending domain, which must match the end of the local domain, is

slugcorp.com

If you try to find a host called xxx using these settings, TCP/IP will search as follows:-

  1. Starting domain:  xxx.sales.hq.slugcorp.com
  2. Larger domain:  xxx.hq.slugcorp.com
  3. Ending domain:  xxx.slugcorp.com

You can also extend such implicit searches into domains that are unrelated to your own network area. To do this you must add entries to the Additional Search domains box at the bottom of the panel. For example, if you entered:-

hopeless.org

superschool.edu

bloggs.com

and then searched for xxx it would also look for:-

xxx.hopeless.org

xxx.superschool.edu

xxx.bloggs.com

Modem Control Panel

This panel, which is only used with the OT/PPP system, matches your modem to the machine’s software. It has similar features to the TCP/IP panel. Its window contains the following settings:-

Connect via: selects the appropriate serial port, such as Modem Port.

Setup Section

Modem: selects the modem type, such as Global Village. Modems in this menu relate to special files, sometime called modem drivers, that are in the Modem Scripts folder in your Extensions folder. These are text files, which can be examined using a text editor such as BBEdit. Scripts can also be created using Apple’s Modem Script Generator application. CCL modem scripts, as supplied with ARA, can also be used with OT/PPP although those supplied with OT/PPP usually give better results. If you use the wrong script you may have to switch your modem on and off again.

Sound: enables or disables sound output on your modem.

Dialling: choose Tone or Pulse to match your phone system. You should only select Ignore dial tone if your phone company doesn’t always provide a normal dialling tone.

PPP/Remote Access Panel

This OT/PPP panel, like the later Remote Access panel in Mac OS 9.x, operates independently of mdev files and has similar features to the TCP/IP panel. It includes the following settings:-

Connect via: usually set to a suitable modem. If you’re not using a modem then you can select Null Modem 57600 or a similar item.

Connection Section

This area contains basic settings for PPP.

Registered User or Guest: select Registered User unless told otherwise.

Name: as supplied by your ISP or network administrator.

Password: as supplied by your ISP or network administrator. Check on Save Password if you don’t want to enter this each time you use the Internet.

Number: phone number for your ISP’s Internet connection, with commas inserted for pauses. Enter a fake number if you don’t use a modem.

Status Section

The appearance of this area varies according to the state of your Internet connection. If you’re disconnected it indicates Idle. Otherwise it show the items shown below.

Connected at: connection speed in bits per second.

Connected to: the IP address of the connection.

Time connected: duration of connection in hours, minutes and seconds.

Time remaining: usually shows Unlimited but may show a specific time.

The Options button leads you to a second window with the following three tabs as follows:-

Protocol

Initially these settings should be left at their default values.

Allow error correction and compression in modem: check this unless you know your modem or modem script can’t accommodate these features.

Use TCP header compression: normally checked. This RFC 1144 TCP header compression, also known as CSLIP or VJ compression, improves response time.

Connect to a command line host: not normally checked. Only check this if calling a server that requires you to enter a login name and password.

Use terminal window: the first time you use PPP you must have this selected. When the terminal window first appears just select Prompt to save Connect Script on close in PPP Terminal Settings. Having done this and made a connection you’ll be prompted to save the script which you can use for all subsequent connections (see below).

Use connect script: this should only be selected if you have a suitable script available, when the script name appears to the right. Once you’ve created a script in the Use terminal window mode (see above) you can choose this option and select the saved script for all future connections.

Connection

Connect automatically when starting TCP/IP applications: this causes PPP to make a connection whenever you launch an Internet application. It can be used with AICK applications even if you’re not using the system software that came with the kit. Whether this option is selected or not you won’t be disconnected from the Internet when you quit any application.

Use verbose logging: select this only if you want a highly detailed log.

Reminders

Flash icon in menubar while connected: a useful indication that your phone bill is still rising.

Prompt every _ minutes to maintain connection: gives a regular dialogue, asking if you want to stay connected.

Disconnect if idle for _ minutes: prevents you wasting phone time whilst gazing into space, but not always suitable.

Redialling

This tab automates the process of getting to your ISP at difficult times.

Off: the simple option.

Redial main number only: dials the number in the Connection tab.

    Redial _ times: the number of attempts made to get through.

    Time between retries _ seconds: the wait before trying again.

Redial main and alternate numbers: also tries the number below.

    Redial _ times: the number of attempts to get through.

    Time between retries _ seconds: the wait before trying again.

    Alternate number: alternative number for ISP.

Config PPP Panel

This panel is used specifically to set up the PPP (MacPPP) extension (mdev), as supplied with the AICK package. If you don’t use AICK’s Apple Internet Dialler to set up an ISP account you’ll need to obtain information from your ISP about how to set up Config PPP.

The panel is very complex in parts, although the first window looks fairly harmless. The Idle Timeout determines the period of inactivity that must pass before PPP will hang up the phone. Too long a setting might create expensive phone bills whilst a short setting could be irritating.

By pressing the Config button you can set up the panel for your first ISP. This has a default name of untitled, but the actual name doesn’t matter, since it only exists to identify the ISP.

You must then select the modem options. The Port Speed should be set to around four times the speed of your modem whilst Flow Control should be set to CTS & RTS (DTR) for best performance. Obviously you must enter the Phone Number for your ISP. However, the Modem Init code (which begins with AT and is required by a Hayes-compatible modem) is best left alone unless you know exactly what you’re doing. Finally, the Connect Timeout setting determines how long the modem waits for the ISP’s server to respond to a call.

Clicking on the Authentication button presents you with a window in which you can enter the Authentication ID and Password supplied by your ISP. If these are to be entered at the time of connection you’re allowed a specified number of Retries. After this or a defined Timeout you’ll be promptly shown to the door.

The LCP Options button leads you to a window that could entail endless discussions with your ISP, unless you wisely click on Default, whilst the IPCP Options button takes you to a window that includes, amongst other things, your IP Address. It’s best to select all the options in this last dialogue.

Having finished this lot you can of course repeat this horrible process for additional ISPs with other names by using the New button in the initial window. You can also reconfigure an existing ISP setup using the Config button.

Finally, you can press the Open button to get into communication with your selected ISP. The window should show a status window displaying something like At:57600. The number is actually the port speed at your computer. A value of 57600 is fine for a 14.4 kbit/s modem but it should be much higher with a modern device. PPP should be able to ‘hold’ on-line for 5 minutes or more. When you have completed this test you should click on Close.

InterSLIP Setup Application

This application acts as a control panel. It sets up the InterSLIP extension (mdev), so as to accommodates SLIP, the alternative protocol for use with ISPs that don’t support PPP.

The InterSLIP Setup application lets you choose a Serial Port, Baud Rate, Data Bits, Stop Bits and Parity for the modem, in the same way as a standard communications program. It also lets you enable Hardware Handshaking or turn the modem’s Speaker on while dialling.

Dial Script options accommodate a Direct Connection or a more usual Hayes compatible modem. For the latter you can choose a Dial Script from a pop-up list, the option to Dial using Tone or Pulse dialling, the ISP’s Phone Number and a Modem Init to suit your modem. The latter, in the form of an initialisation string, can be left blank if the default settings of your modem are suitable.

Gateway options allow a Direct Connection or Simple UNIX/Telebit link. The latter requires a User Name and Password. If Prompt for password at connect time is checked you’ll have to enter your password whenever you make a connection.

Other settings include numerical entries for IP Address and Nameserver (the address of the remote name server computer). The check box for RFC 1144 TCP Header Compression, also known as CSLIP or VJ compression, is normally checked as it improves response time. The MTU Size, usually at 1006, can be set to a maximum of 1500 if you’re so advised.

MacTCP Control Panel

This panel should be used in place of TCP/IP only if you’re not using Open Transport, if you’re using Classic AppleTalk or when any form of AppleTalk is turned off. It has a similar function to TCP/IP, requires the PPP extension (mdev) and can be tricky to set up.

When you first open MacTCP you’ll see this window:-

The IP Address can be supplied by whichever server is highlighted; in this case either AppleTalk or PPP can be used. If your address appears correctly in the box you can close the panel. The following window appears when you click on More:-

The address can only be modified by hand if you select Manually. Once you’ve entered an address you should reselect Server. The address Class can be adjusted to assign a different number of address bits to define each network, subnet and node. For example, Class B gives a Subnet Mask of 255.255.0.0, as shown here:-

and Class C, the standard setting for most users, gives a mask of 255.255.255.0:-

The slider can also be moved by hand to assign bits to address a subnet. In the example below Obtain Address is set to Manually and Class A is selected with the slider moved to give 9 subnet address bits. It’s worth noting that entering numbers into the lower boxes has no effect on the address at the top until you close the window. Any numbers that you do enter are subject to limitations set by the available number of address bits.

IP Addresses for individual nodes can also be assigned dynamically within an range entered into the box as shown below:-

The Gateway Address box and Domain Name Server Information list operate in a similar way to those provided in the TCP/IP panel. The top item in the Domain Name Server List should have it’s Default radio button activated.

Options for Older Systems

Apart from AICK, a huge amount of Internet software has been produced for older versions of the Mac OS, some by Apple and even more by third-party developers. If you have real problems you should update to Mac OS 9.x, assuming your machine is capable of running this system.

Internet Access

This software package, supplied as part of Mac OS 8, lets you configure your Internet settings by means of the Internet Setup Assistant application. This uses ICS (see above) to establish your Internet settings. However, if you want to modify more esoteric settings such as proxies, you must use the Internet Config application or other Internet applications that are compatible with ICS.

If you previously used AICK, your settings can be automatically transferred by means of the Internet Setup Assistant. However, this only works when you use the same name (containing less than 32 characters) for each ISP configuration in the TCP/IP, PPP and Modem panels. In addition, your login password and e-mail password must be entered into Internet Setup Assistant from scratch. For security, 16 bullets are shown in the password boxes, irrespective of the actual password length.

The PPP panel is set to automatically dial your ISP whenever an Internet application needs a connection. It will then automatically disconnect after 10 minutes of inactivity. The package also includes Internet Dialler, a useful application for calling up your ISP.

Applescript Control

The PPP panel can be controlled via AppleScript, if required. To use this feature you must ensure that the PPP Commands file is present in the Scripting Additions folder, inside the Extensions within the System Folder. You can then create scripts to connect, disconnect or reconnect (if idle), to save a log or to bring up the PPP status window.

Configurations in the TCP/IP panel can be selected using AppleScript, providing you put TCP Config (Nigel Perry) or CC Scripts (Tim Kelly) in the Scripting Additions folder.

Some types of mdev, including MacPPP and FreePPP, can also be controlled this way, providing a suitable file is placed in the Scripting Additions folder. Unfortunately, the PPP Commands addition, supplied as part of OT/PPP, doesn’t work with other forms of PPP or SLIP.

©Ray White 2004.